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Very impressive article Jake! You are very talented.
nice article! i love seeing the breakdowns.
Dannie Carlone from Crystal Dynamics talked about the way he creates awesome materials for high-profile AAA-games.
Hey Everyone! My name is Dannie Carlone, and I am currently an Environment Artist at Crystal Dynamics. I grew up in San Bernardino California and studied at The Art Institute of California in Inland Empire. I have been working in games for a little over 5 years. I’ve been lucky enough to work for a handful of studios such as Crystal Dyanmics, Sony Santa Monica, and Vigil Games. working at these studios has given me the opportunity to work on great projects like Rise of the Tomb Raider, God of War: Ascension, and Warhammer.
PBR changed everything; the way you go about making materials these days is a completely new beast. Previously, we used to throw the kitchen sink into our diffuse maps, and they were extremely dark with tons of lighting information that you just don’t do with PBR. Now with PBR standards it has become more of a science to get materials looking correct.
Nowadays materials have either a high poly model or Substance Designer driving your textures. Whereas previously, textures were either photosourced from a texture library online, or you scouted your own.
PBR changed material workflows by changing them to a phyically based system. Each material has its own parameters for values: how dark or light the material is, and what kind of roughness it has. Previously, specular maps weren’t accurate or were guesswork. Now, PBR has made the materials come across more life like and has made them more grounded. The fidelity and interest you can get in a material now is far higher than the previous generation.
As an Environment Artist story is the king. When telling a story it should establish the location and tone for the level. Materials play a huge part in that, and should ground the environment in the games style. I personally look at it as they inform and enhance the setdressing of the area and give context to the assets in the scene.
Combining Zbrush and Substance Designer
I love Zbrush, I sculpt every day. I can’t get away from it. I’ve always been into traditional sculpting, but Zbrush is where I truly felt free from restrictions. I use a combination of Zbrush and Substance Designer because I feel each program should be used for their strengths. Nothing beats Zbrush for sculpting in my opinion, and nothing beats Substance Designer with their texturing tools. Combining them just seemed obvious to me. I can get exactly what I want in the modeling phase in Zbrush and get exactly what I want in the texturing phase with Substance Designer.
Is it more time consuming? It depends on the sculpt, but not overly so. I don’t really look at it as I need to crank out this material as fast as i can. I want to make high quality materials and this is how I go about that. I also prefer to bake from a physical model to get physically correct AO and Height information.
As I mentioned before, I love to sculpt. I asked myself, how do I improve my workflow using zbrush as much as I can? I decided to make some brushes to jump-start my texture sculpts. The goal was to make tools for me to start from, and it just took off from there.
When making a brush, I look at reference and start sculpting a mesh. Once I’m done, I capture that model’s height information and Bam! New brush.
I use the brushes to help start my sculpting and use them as a foundation and build from there to speed up my sculpting in a productive way.
I currently have two ZBrush brush packs out right now and a combo pack with an assortment of rock, stone, noise, wood, and damage brushes. They are available on my Gumroad page.
Implementing Substance Designer
Substance is great; the flexibility of generating an infinite amount of noise patterns and blending them into each other in a non-destructive way is invaluable. Once I’m done with my sculpt, I will make a mask in Zbrush using the flat MatCap material. I then bring that into Substance, and it drives my entire texture process.
From there I create some noise patterns and make a gradient map for my albedo and continue to blend into each other until I have something I can start from.
When sculpting my textures, I make sure I have a high level of detail and also make sure when it tiles it doesn’t look too repetitive. Blending between materials is incredibly important these days, and making sure your texture foundation is great will only make your environment sing even more.
I use the standard 200 unit plane in ZBrush as my grout or ground. I place the mesh on the far end of the plane. I duplicate the mesh and offset in the deformation tab by 200. This way, the sculpt will always tile.
I also take advantage of morph targets in ZBrush. I get asked a lot about how I tile the grout in ZBrush. I set my brushes to wrap mode 1 and make sure I have a morph target set. I constantly check to make sure my texture is tiling in a non-offensive way.