21 Foundations of Animation

Dermot O Connor decided to present an updated version of a well-known list which now features 21 principles.

You have probably about the ‘Twelve Principles of Animation’ discussed by Disney animators Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston in their 1981 book ‘The Illusion of Life”.

Here they are: 

1. Squash and Stretch
2. Anticipation
3. Staging
4. Straight Ahead/Pose to Pose
5. Follow Through / Overlap
6. Slow In and Slow Out 
7. Arcs
8. Secondary Action
9. Timing
10. Exaggeration
11. Solid drawing
12. Appeal

Dermot O Connor, animator, designer, cartoonist, and indie film-maker, decided to present an updated version of the list previously this year and it now features 21 principles. The new list is called the ‘Foundations’ of animation “to reduce confusion.”

1. Appeal
2. Strong Design
3. Staging
4. Acting & Pantomime
5. Keys and Breakdowns
6. Straight Ahead / Pose to Pose
7. Thumbnails & Planning
8. Timing, Spacing & Easing
9. Squash and Stretch
10. Arcs
11. Primary & Secondary Action
12. Silhouette
13. Line of Action & Reversals
14. Anticipation, Overshoot & Settle
15. Opposing action
16. Counter-pose
17. Leading Actions
18. Breaking Joints
19. Overlap & Follow Through
20. Cartoon Physics
21. Exaggeration

Make sure to follow this link to find an illustrated breakdown of the new and old principles. Don’t forget to share your thoughts on the whole concept. 

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